Vermont Legal Aid Inc
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264 N Winooski Ave Burlington VT 05401 USA
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THE REMARKABLE POTENTIAL HUMAN AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS IN PREVENTING, ARRESTING, AND ALLEVIATING ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A MINIREVIEW
Julian Lieb, M.D
Twenty years ago, researchers knew that depression often accompanies and predisposes to the Alzheimer’s disease, the obvious inference: why not use antidepressants to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s? However, medical science is often peripheral to those exploiting the misfortunes of others. Today’s figure is $100,000,000 for preventing Alzheimer’s, with research based on the genome bubble.
Serotonin signaling is associated with lower amyloid-β levels and plaques in transgenic mice and humans. Cirrito JR, Disabato BM, Restivo JL, Verges DK, Goebel WD, Sathyan A, Hayreh D, D'Angelo G, Benzinger T, Yoon H, Kim J, Morris JC, Mintun MA, Sheline YI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 6; 108(36):14968-73. Epub 2011 Aug 22. PMID: 21873225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Improving depression and enhancing resilience in family dementia caregivers: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram. Lavretsky H, Siddarth P, Irwin MR. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb; 18(2):154-62.PMID: 20104071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
Anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants: possibilities for preventives against Alzheimer's disease. Hashioka S, McGeer PL, Monji A, Kanba S. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2009 Mar; 9(1):12-9. Review.PMID: 20021334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Imipramine, in part through tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibition, prevents cognitive decline and beta-amyloid accumulation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Chavant F, Deguil J, Pain S, Ingrand I, Milin S, Fauconneau B, Pérault-Pochat MC, Lafay-Chebassier C. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Feb; 332(2):505-14. Epub 2009 Nov 4.
Involuntary emotional expression disorder in Alzheimer's disease - psychopharmacotherapy aspects. Mimica N, Drmić S, Presecki P. Psychiatr Danub. 2009 Sep; 21(3):425-8.
Untangling the roles of antidepressants and mood stabilizers in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Introduction. Reiman EM. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Jun;70(6):913-4. No abstract available.
Effect of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor on irritability, apathy, and psychotic symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Siddique H, Hynan LS, Weiner MF. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Jun; 70(6):915-8. Epub 2009 May 5.
Antidepressants and dementia. Kessing LV, Søndergård L, Forman JL, Andersen PK.
J Affect Disord. 2009 Sep; 117(1-2):24-9. Epub 2009 Jan 12.Int Rev Psychiatry. 2008 Aug; 20(4):382-8.
Effect of citalopram in treating hypersexuality in an Alzheimer's disease case.
Tosto G, Talarico G, Lenzi GL, Bruno G. Neurol Sci. 2008 Sep; 29(4):269-70. Epub 2008 Sep 20
Is antidepressant treatment associated with reduced cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease? Mossello E, Boncinelli M, Caleri V, Cavallini MC, Palermo E, Di Bari M, Tilli S, Sarcone E, Simoni D, Biagini CA, Masotti G, Marchionni N. Department of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, Unit of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Florence and Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy. email@example.com J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 9; 282(45):32676-88. Epub 2007 Sep 2.
Involvement of prostaglandin E2 in production of amyloid-beta peptides both in vitro and in vivo. Hoshino T, Nakaya T, Homan T, Tanaka K, Sugimoto Y, Araki W, Narita M, Narumiya S, Suzuki T, Mizushima T.Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 9; 282(45):32676-88. Epub 2007 Sep 2.
Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, a literature review of evidence. Henry G, Williamson D, Tampi RR.Am J Alzheimer’s Dis Other Demen. 2011 May; 26(3):169-83. Epub 2011 Mar 23. Review PMID: 21429956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21660. Epub 2011 Jun 27.
Amitriptyline-mediated cognitive enhancement in aged 3×Tg Alzheimer's disease mice is associated with neurogenesis and neurotrophic activity.Chadwick W, Mitchell N, Caroll J, Zhou Y, Park SS, Wang L, Becker KG, Zhang Y, Lehrmann E, Wood WH 3rd, Martin B, Maudsley S. Receptor Pharmacology Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS
As depression predisposes to Alzheimer’s disease, it is not surprising that antidepressants are capable of preventing, alleviating and arresting the disorder. Excessive synthesis of prostaglandin E2 generates amyloid, and such non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as aspirin and ibuprofen, as well as antidepressants, inhibit prostaglandin E2. Two epidemiological studies have shown that ibuprofen (Motrin), that inhibit prostaglandin E2, can delay the onset of Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder closely related to Alzheimer’s.
Antidepressants offer great advantages, and few disadvantages, in addressing Alzheimer’s, recently referred to as “the coming tsunami,” but you would not think so, given the lack of enthusiasm of Alzheimer’s organizations and health policy makers, when notified of this innovation. One suspects that conflicts of interest, and the low cost of generic antidepressants, are the root causes of the neglect.
The right to the highest attainable standard of health is codified in numerous legally binding international and regional human rights treaties. The right, or other health-related rights, is also enshrined in over 100 constitutions worldwide.
Article19 of the universal declaration of human rights.
• Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Many additional references in Pubmed.
For educational purposes only.
Julian Lieb, M.D
Retired, Yale medical school professor
Available in 1990, will not be imitated, permanent damage to society.
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