Palomacy fills in an important gap when it comes to rescuing animals - pigeons are misunderstood and unfairly despised, and thousands are abandoned in the wild as a result of human activities. This organization rescues the ones that are lucky enough to make it, and goes above and beyond to ensure that they are living happy lives.
Miu came to me after Palomacy posted about a pigeon that had just lost her owner and mate, and she is one of the best things that's ever happened to me. Elizabeth (Palomacy's founder) came to meet her, look her over for general health issues, and she even de-wormed her. She made sure that I feel comfortable asking her questions, and I really do mean any question. She answers all of them in a timely manner, and she does this for hundreds of pigeon owners! I really don't know how she manages to do everything that she does without sacrificing individual attention and care.
In addition to rescues, Palomacy also does a lot of outreach and pigeon advocacy. Rescuing lost birds and giving them a second chance at having homes is amazing, but the outreach is what will make lasting impressions on attitudes towards these birds. I have seen so much love and care in this organization, and it's done so much to help animals that no one else will advocate for. I'm extremely grateful for all they have done for me, and for these birds.
I first encountered Palomacy when I was a wildlife rehabber new to pigeons. I was given helpful advice and encouragement - and I was inspired to build an aviary and start my own pigeon and dove sanctuary! Not only does Palomacy help specific local birds, but Elizabeth and core volunteers have built a positive, supportive community that connects and assists people across the country to care for birds in their area. Thanks to their network and online group, I have been able to find wonderful adoptive homes for several of my rescued birds, and help coordinate foster homes for others. Palomacy is a necessary resource and safe place I can refer people to. I can't say enough good about this organization!
This summer, I acquired several disabled pigeons who needed a home. I live far from the area that MickaCoo serves, but they have still offered advice and their website has been an invaluable resource for helping me get set up with proper care. I also follow their Facebook page, and it is so encouraging and uplifting to see photos and stories of birds who have been helped, and to know that there is a community out there that cares about doves and pigeons as much as I do. I only wish that I were close enough to volunteer!
Palomacy is amazing. When a friend of mine found a lost racing pigeon they were able to help us take care of it, and I ended up fostering him and 2 others since I learned of palomacy 1 1/2 years ago. They are extremely helpful and don't get enough recognition for everything they do.
An amazing organization. My husband rescued one and then another pigeon, and with Palomacy's help and advice, we have been able to make a great go of sharing our home with two beautiful, unreleasable pigeons.
In September of 2016, I found a lost pigeon wandering inside a building. He was quiet and adorable, but also hungry and dehydrated. I picked him up and had no idea what to do, until a friend mentioned Palomacy.
Elizabeth was so helpful and somehow made time to reply immediately even when she has so many things to take care of and birds to help. Since then, she's helped us so much --identifying his type (a homer pigeon), recommending a great avian vet, giving great advice on keeping him healthy and safe, and more.
We learned that there's a whole world of sweet, domestic pigeons and doves out there who desperately need help being saved and finding homes, and that there's so much stigma and false perceptions around these birds that they aren't getting that help they need. Thankfully, Elizabeth and Palomacy are fighting that one bird at a time and are an endless source of advice and support. I hope that Palomacy continues to gain awareness and support and that soon more organizations around the world follow suit and help save the neglected (but no less deserving) population of pidges and doves.
Thank you for all the work that you do!
Palomacy is definitely one of the best organizations out there. Not only are they teaching others about the struggles domestic pigeons and doves face, they're saving so many of these amazing birds' lives. I am so grateful to Elizabeth and all of her volunteers for showing me how incredible these little birds are. I've adopted two Ringneck Doves named Novie and Limabean, and they've brought so much joy into my life. Not only is the charity a good cause, the people working at Palomacy are very personable and friendly. They really care about their cause and it's so amazing to see what they've done for pigeons and doves alike. I've told almost everyone I know about Palomacy, and I'll definitely be continuing to support them in the future.
I have known Elizabeth and Palomacy for about 1 year now, and had the privilege of fostering (and then adopting) a lovely little white Ringneck dove that was rescued on the street by a stranger, and who then contacted Palomacy for help. Palomacy is a top quality nonprofit, and more dedicated to "the cause" than any other nonprofit I have worked with. If you want to see evidence of this, just read the stories and look at the number of birds that Elizabeth cares for personally! Elizabeth is constantly available to support the people who adopt and foster the rescued birds. If you are interested in these lovely little creatures I encourage you to attend one of the Palomacy events -- there are many fairs and fundraisers for which volunteers are always needed, and it's a great chance to meet some fantastic people and wonderful little friends at the same time.
My wife and I are lovers of all animals. In April of this year we were "adopted" by a pigeon at our home. He just showed up one day. He never left and loved being with us. We did not know anything about pigeons and thought he would find his way home someday. But we fell in love with him and wanted to give him a good home, but still residing outside in the wild. After searching the web, I came across Palomacy. I contacted them with our story and turns out our pigeon was a survivor of pigeon racing and would not survive on his own in the wild. With the help of Elizabeth at Palomacy, we have been able to provide our pigeon, named Peteybyrd, with a safe home and environment. We have learned so much with the guidance of Palomacy about these birds. They even put us in contact with another rescuer in our area and we adopted a female for our Petey. After a few weeks, they were married and in love! We are currently constructing a large outdoor aviary for the both of them and are planning to adopt more rescues in the future. This is a great organization and Elizabeth has ALWAYS made the time to talk with us, help us with providing the best possible home and life for them and has been very encouraging. I am proud to be a donor to this organization.
A co-worker rescued a homing pigeon that was on the ground and unable to fly and in hindsight, starving and dehydrated. She took it to work and both of us decided to care for it. Neither one of us had any experience with birds so I immediately starting searching the web for advise and THANKFULLY found the Palomacy Pigeon & Dove website. Elizabeth Young helped us save this poor bird's life. I must of called her a dozen times frantic with questions from everything about feed to cages and everything in between. Other than racing and breeding, there is very little information available on the care of Pigeons. Palomacy fills that need with excellence.
I have since taken the bird - named Lois Lane - permanently home with me. Everything Elizabeth has advised me on has worked out. From my fear of Lois and my cats interacting with one another to adopting another pigeon from Palomacy so Lois can have a buddy. I am so grateful to Elizabeth and Palomacy for devoting their time and love of Pigeons and more importantly, educating us novices on how great these little birds are.
This nonprofit organization helped us find pets in need of homes. They rescue pigeons and doves and have an easy adoption process.
Two weeks ago, a beautiful white and tan dove began feeding on the birdseed in my backyard. I became very concerned about its wellbeing because it was so tame, and I didn't want it to possibly get attacked by a hawk or neighborhood cats, so I called the Wildlife Center of Silicon Valley and they referred me to Palomacy. I emailed Palomacy with a description and photo of the white/tan dove. Elizabeth immediately emailed me back with the correct type of bird, a Domestic Ringneck Dove, and that it needed to be rescued as soon as possible. Within 15 minutes, I was speaking with one of their volunteers, Jill. The next day, Jill drove about 50 miles to my home. She set up a dog crate, spread seed in the bottom, and she even brought her own Ringneck Dove and placed it inside the crate within a separate cage, hoping to lure my backyard dove into the cage. After a couple hours of waiting, the dove finally flew down from the tree, inspected the cage and decided to enter, at which time I closed the cage door and we were so relieved and happy! Jill transported the lost dove to Andy's Pet Shop to join other Ringneck Doves waiting for adoption. Jill was amazing with her kind capturing technique, patience, advice ~ I could never have done this on my own! Very impressed with Elizabeth's super fast email replies and the speedy response by volunteers wanting to help with the rescue. Palomacy is an exceptionally run organization. They are knowledgeable, caring and extremely helpful people who want only the best for animals in need. Thank you so very much!
I learned of Palomacy when I recently rescued a domestic King pigeon (whom I named Daisy) from a neighbor's yard, thin, dirty, and scared. Elizabeth Young, Palomacy's founder, helped teach me how to care for her, then arranged for a foster home. I was so moved by this experience and by Elizabeth's passion that I became a Palomacy volunteer just one week after rescuing Daisy.
Palomacy feels like a solid organization in capable, loving hands. Elizabeth is perfectly suited for her pigeon & dove rescue and adoption endeavor. She's one of those rare people who has a wonderful way with both animals and people. She has great energy and passion and love for all critters, and is passionate about advocating for the underappreciated pigeon. She teaches people what gentle and smart creatures pigeons really are, and guides people toward a new appreciation of feral (city/street) pigeons. She also has a remarkable way of making her volunteers and rescuers feel appreciated and therefore want to do even more.
I now find myself telling everyone who will listen about pigeons -- how they bond for life with their chosen mate, how both parents lovingly care for their young, how they have such gentle, sweet (and/or sassy, as we like to say) temperments, and about the cruelties of the racing/homing pigeon "sport" and the practice of "releases" at events.
Palomacy is an incredible organization, bringing awareness about the plight of abused and injured pigeons and doves and saving many through adoptions. Through Palomacy, my daughter and I have adopted four rescue pigeons. They've brought great joy to our lives and on so many levels, have made us more aware of the animals who share our city and are in need of help.
I'd always loved wild pigeons and often spent my free time feeding them and observing their charming ways. I learned about Palomacy through Facebook and offered to volunteer at an event just to be close to these lovely creatures. It may seem odd to most, including myself at the time, that pigeons would ever need rescuing. I soon learned about the cruel "sport" of pigeon racing, the seemingly beautiful yet ultimately horrific practice of white "doves" (actually pigeons) being released at events and ceremonies, and the awful plight of the king pigeon bred to be slaughtered and eaten at only a few weeks old. I now design and press Palomacy's promotional buttons, trying as best I can to spread interest and awareness about these magnificent birds. It has been said that the measure of a society is found in how they treat their weakest and most helpless citizens. This philosophy it what makes Palomacy Pigeon & Dove Rescue a truly great nonprofit.
I work at a vet hospital in the peninsula and I heard about a pigeon with a badly hurt beak and wing, he was brought over and my first thought was to call wildlife services right away I asked if he would be put down due to his injuries, I texted him a photo of the baby bird and the dispatcher told me they would. I knew that couldn't happen and I knew the baby was a fighter I could see it in his eyes, he wanted to live he had survived living at a gas station for two weeks and he was still perky and wanted to know what was going on and where he was despite his injuries. I then remembered of an awesome bird rescue I met at the Bay Area pet expo "palomacy" and gave them a call, no answer so I left a message, I was desperate calling every wildlife vet in the area I can think of. I walked back in he treatment room and saw the doctor had the baby in her arms preparing for a euthanasia! I yelled with tears streaming down my face "please don't do it I will save him!" I decided to call palomacy once more and I heard Elozabeths voice telling me she will help me, I was so relieved I started to cry some more I was a mess lol. I put the baby back into his box and got in my car "when doves cry" was on the radio and it was a sign his name was Prince! Took little prince home and he was so curious to see where he was going I have him some water which he drank on his own but wasn't able to eat. A few hours later Prince, my mom, my three chihuahua's and a Shepard that I was pet sitting for the wknd got in the car and drove to San Francisco to Elizabeth's house. She took him to the vet the very next day and has been updating me on his condition ever since. Just as I thought Prince is going to be ok it will take time but he will be just fine. Thank you so much to Elizabeth and Palomacy for existing for helping little Prince out and saving his life, and all the other pigeons and doves lives that people just seem to disregard. I have a whole new respect and love for pigeons and now carry bird food with me in my car
We had a beautiful little pigeon "self rescue" herself with us. We are not bird people per say and have no knowledge of the care involved. We reached out to Palomacy and received an abundance of support. We were able to safely take care of her for almost 1 month until we found her a great home in a beautiful aviary with a very knowledgeable bird enthusiast also referred to us by Palomacy. The network they have is grand and everyone was generous with their advise and feedback. Very caring and compassionate group worthy of support.
When we encountered an injured homing pigeon four years ago, we did now what to do. We reached out to Palomacy Pigeon & Dove Adoptions for some education. Elizabeth Young provided us with a lot of useful information and support. Everyone we have encountered from Palomacy have been tremendous resources. Our experience was so positive that we decided to provide forever homes to two pigeons and three doves from Palomacy. We are so happy that Palomacy exists to help pigeons and doves that need assistance and for people seeking information about them and who want to help them.
I don't live in the Bay area, I learned about Palomacy through Facebook. It was connected with my interest in birds and especially Pigeons. I live in Vegas and here Pigeons are viewed as nothing more than pests. I had no idea there were any domestic pigeons or doves in need of homes. I only enjoyed and admired them in the wild. Since I was about 12 when I made friends with a Pigeon I named Slappy at the park I knew they were special. Slappy would come to see me every time I was there. I was so pleased to find an organization that made it's work to promote the understanding of how special I just knew these birds were and they immediately had my full support. My plan was to drive to the area at some point and hopefully help to rescue a pigeon or dove. My story took a different turn when I found Kizmit. A crested helmet pigeon who was one day away from euthanasia right here in my own valley. My husband and I went to see her immediately. Everyone at the shelter was afraid of her, they said she wasn't a nice bird. But I knew with our love and with the help of Palomacy we could get her to be at least manageable. Above all we believed she deserved life and so we took her home. The first week was so hard for us. It was the support and guidance of Palomacy which- even from a distance- was able to turn the tide for Kizmit and our new family. In only 10 days she has gone from a bird that furiously bit at us, that pecked and flew away from us- that hated the idea of even being touched, into one of the very most lovey dovey animals I have ever had the pleasure of knowing. She is a true friend and a family member. If we put our hands out she coos and gives kisses. She loves being petted. She has even begun to figure out how to come and land on us when we call her. She knows her name and sits often and adoringly next to her reflection in the mirror cooing and kissing it. It is hard to believe such a wonderful being might have had it's precious life taken. Terrified and hurt and alone she sat waiting for someone who wasn't afraid. Bringing her home was the first step, we saved her from dying- Palomacy's support helped give her life. I don't know that this little bird has ever known affection or love, I know that without the awareness Palomacy promotes I may never have even known she existed. I certainly would not have known what to do with her. I can't say enough good things about Elizabeth and Jill and all the people who work so hard for the preservation of these beautiful, loving and intelligent birds.
My pre-teen daughter learned of Palomacy's important work through an outreach appearance at the East Bay SPCA camp where she was volunteering. Elizabeth, Palomacy's founder, was so supportive of my daughter's interest in pigeons and empowered her to pursue building an aviary and taking on six foster pigeons. With Elizabeth's guidance and encouragement, my daughter improved her self-confidence and self-assurance by advocating for and educating about pigeons at events with Palomacy. Elizabeth has built an amazing organization.
I can't say enough about Elizabeth and the organization.
I adopted 6 pigeons and foster 2 that I would like to adopt soon, and this has been one of the most rewarding experiences I had in my life.
Inspiring, loving, all together goodness!!
Thank you for the opportunity to be part of it!
I have run an independent pigeon rescue for well over a decade. In the course of my work I had a home population of over 100 pigeons and doves. Mostly they were not releasable due to orthopedic injury, health issues, old age, or simply a tame species that does not do well in the wild. Due to financial hardship I was forced to move to less expensive accommodations and I could not any longer provide a home for my beloved Birds. Elizabeth Young of Palomacy re-homed every bird. In doing so she was able to give special needs birds a home with appropriate care givers---she not only saved my birds; she skillfully matched the needs of adopters with the particular needs of the pigeons and doves. This is a life saver and will always be deeply appreciated. Thanks!
Palomacy is an outstanding organization! It employs compassionate and very knowledgable people. With their help I was able to care for a very sick pigeon. I was glad that I listened to them instead of the vet who was suggesting euthanasia. The Palomacy walked me through every step.. I am very grateful that I found their website and got in touch with them. Now my rescued domestic pigeon is almost fully recovered and is one happy bird again! Thank you Palomacy!!!
Palomacy helps find homes for domestic pigeons and doves - animals that have been bred specifically to serve our purposes (eg, food and sport) and not to live in the wild. Domestic pigeons and doves are unexpectedly wonderful companions: They tap into a gentler, more contemplative mental state and are great for stress reduction. They have lovely little personalities, like to play, and are very soft, clean, and pettable. It is just as easy (if not easier!) to modify your lifestyle to live with a pigeon or dove as it is to live with a cat or a dog.
I was introduced to pigeons and doves as a wildlife rehab volunteer a year ago. Palomacy educated me on how to work with a juvenile wild pigeon, that was released, and a domestic white dove that I’ve since adopted. I have since adopted three domestic white doves from Palomacy and I help with outreach events, demonstrating to curious kids and adults alike the specific appeal of these birds. Palomacy is helping bring these birds into the spotlight and champion their intrinsic value. Its founder and numerous volunteers demonstrate in a highly inclusive way how to be kinder and more compassionate to animals (all animals) and to our fellow humans. We need more of these values in the world! These birds can help us be better.
A pigeon found us eating at an outdoor restaurant in San Francisco! He had an issue with his beak and was unable to eat efficiently, and we could see he was competing with the other pigeons and was losing -- so he jumped up in my husband's lap and began eating his sandwich. Of course, my husband let him have all he could eat. But we could see he was unable to get his share of the food with so much pigeon competition. So we took him home.
We fattened him up, but he still didn't have all his needs -- he is a flock bird, and he was alone most of the day and night due to everyone working. So, I researched where we could find a haven for him where he could have companionship and the care he needed.
I was so blessed to find Elizabeth at PALOMACY PIGEON & DOVE ADOPTIONS. She is one AMAZING lady who absolutely LOVES these little pigeons. She will go above and beyond to care for them.
She has taken BB for us, and he thinks he just went to Heaven. He has so much more than I ever thought he would have. This place is far above any expectations I had. He has companionship of people and birds, an outdoor aviary where he has met some friends, and an indoor cage where he can eat without having to compete with other birds. He even has health care! Elizabeth took him to have his beak trimmed so that he could self-feed a little more efficiently.
Palomacy is an incredible place with loads of love for pigeons! PLEASE DONATE! They have hundreds of pigeons they are caring for, and little donations, big donations, whatever you can afford will help them feed and adopt in (and out) all these wonderful, beautiful, smart little birds! Please find it in your heart to help with these tremendous expenses. These people are fantastic! No one could love pigeons more than Palomacy!!!!
I am so grateful and thankful for Elizabeth at PALOMACY PIGEON & DOVE ADOPTIONS! Thank you from the bottom of my heart, Elizabeth!!!
Palomacy was the kind ear to hear my distress over a baby pigeon injured in the BART tracks. Once the baby was removed from the tracks and left outside they immediately set a rescue into action. Within the hour of my email explaining where the bird was someone was on their way to give aid to the little survivor. I was so impressed with the rapid response, and the fact that they did everything they could to help an innocent creature! This organization gives me hope, we need more people like this in the world!!
I found a stray, show pigeon who had been badly attacked by a hawk. In doing internet searches, everything I needed to know kept bringing me to Palomacy, where I'd find just what I was looking for. Although I am in Maine, and Palomacy is in CA, they have the very best, easiest to find information. Their website led me to believe this pigeon was savable, and that I could learn how to be a good pigeon owner. If it weren't for the valuable knowledge and resources they offer so willingly, this little bird wouldn't be here. I'm happy to report that thanks to Palomacy he was saved, and I now have an incredible feathered friend. THANK YOU!
After my dad died, I was at a complete loss in many ways and found myself with a myriad of items to take care of. The most immediate: finding a place for my parents' doves.
I live out of state in a very small house, with no room for the doves. Before my mom died, she made me promise never to let them free - she said they wouldn't survive. I spent two weeks calling every rescue organization I came across in the Bay Area - either no one would return my calls, or none of them had any good advice.
Finally a kind soul told me about Palomacy. Not only did I get an immediate response, but the whole group went above and beyond to help me get the doves to a safe space so they could be cared for.
I am so impressed with Palomacy. These are people who really care - they just don't talk the talk - they walk the walk. Since I became aware of them, I've read the rescue stories, and also seen firsthand the dedication they have to the cause. I am awed by the care, concern, and determination to save pigeons and doves.
I know my parents would be so happy that the doves are in their care. My mom rescued so many animals throughout her life - it's just so nice to know that when she was no longer around, someone else stepped in to save her beloved doves. I just could never be able to thank them enough for everything they've done.
Palomacy is a wonderful organization that is small and yet powerful. They are comprised of some of the most compassionate volunteers I have ever met. Easy to understand why, after meeting some of their rescue pigeons I have seen people fall head over heels in love with the birds. Then add in the wow factor that the pigeons can wear pants and you have people SOLD, their hearts melt. Rescue work is not easy on the heart, body, soul or pocket book. Palomacy makes a difference to the birds that show up in their care and I love that they will work with families to educate them, support them and the birds become family. If you are looking to support an organization that will use your funds wisely AND save lives, then Palomacy is a great option. If you can not donate, inquire about volunteering, if you are too busy to volunteer then take some time to tell your friends about them!
As I recently heard about the passing of Gurumina, Elizabeth Young's first King rescue, I was reminded of the role Elizabeth and Mickacoo/Palomacy have played in my life over the past several years. In 2009 I rescued a fancy King pigeon, Southy, who was abandoned in Philadelphia. When I tried to learn about Kings via the Internet, there wasn't much out there. But Elizabeth Young was there, and she helped me not only to learn about Kings, but also to feel a sense of community that connected me to someone else who cares deeply about pigeons and doves. Elizabeth's work has impacted my own pigeon rescue work, as well as several other pigeon advocates in the region. So many lives Elizabeth has helped and saved. Most importantly, Palomacy is revolutionizing how we see pigeons: not as objects or property for humans to exploit and kill, but as intelligent, sentient, and socially complex individuals. And (if we're lucky enough for one to enter into our life, as Southy and many others have mine) as amazing companions.
After finding a lost & emaciated racing pigeon on my doorstep, I had no idea what to do or where to turn, but I knew I had to do something. I searched the web & found Palomacy. The website gave fantastic advice for how to handle lost racing pigeons. As I kept reading, I saw that Palomacy is based in San Francisco. Elizabeth from Palomacy came over to my apartment & educated my family & I on how to care for the wayward pigeon & get her back to full-strength. Jill, another Palomacy volunteer, also gave wonderful advice & provided shelter when our recuperated pigeon was ready to fly the coop to a larger home. The service of educating the public on the plight of racing pigeons, rescuing lost pigeons who would otherwise die, and raising awareness for pigeon diplomacy fills a much needed void in society. I don't know what I would've done without Palomacy, and I am extremely grateful for the organization's assistance, education & empathy.
I learned about Palomacy about a year ago, and I am amazed by the wonderful work they do. They care for the forgotten birds, and it's amazing.
My rescued pigeon and I would have been lost without this organization. Elizabeth Young is not only saving the lives of birds, but providing a much-needed resource for humans who love them.
Elizabeth's dedication and abilities are truly amazing. She does everything from direct rescue of birds from the shelters, training and providing ongoing support new fosters/adopters, outreach to the public, and of course, all the countless details necessary to run and sustain the entire network that she has catalyzed. I know of few other organizations that have done so much with so little.
Elizabeth taught me not only to handle and not to be afraid of birds but to appreciate and admire them.
I have been volunteering for Palomacy for four years now. I am honored to be a part of educating the public, especially children. Pigeons get such an undeserved reputation. It never ceases to amaze me how little the general public knows about these sensitive and smart birds.
Recently, Palomacy was contacted by a child who was present for a summer school class I presented at last year. Because she was now aware of their needs, she was able to save and even adopt a domestic racing pigeon that was hanging out at her friend's house. Had she not learned about racing pigeons, she wouldn't have known to help this bird and sadly, the bird would have been among the thousands each year that get lost, injured and die slow, painful deaths tring desperately to find their way home.
It's rewarding to be a part of a small army of people who are giving pigeons the help they deserve.
If not for MickaCoo, my beloved Elinor wouldn't be alive and healthy. I found Elinor on the side of the freeway after having been hawk struck and left for dead. I couldn't drive past him so I stopped, scooped him up and took him home. He had severe injuries to his wing and head. I posted an ad on Craiglist asking for any help or advice (having no pigeon experience) and a volunteer from MickaCoo notified Elizabeth, MickaCoo's founder. She let me know what the best options were for him. He would have been likely killed had I taken him to a local vet or animal shelter. Long story short, MickaCoo paid for his surgery at Medical Center for Birds in Oakley and I have adopted him. Since adopting him I offered to foster pigeons for MickaCoo and Eli(nor) fell in love with a foster girl, now adopted by me. They are living life in an outside aviary with other pigeons and are happy and healthy. His previous owner was notified of his injury and asked if he wanted to reclaim him. He said no as is often the case with racing pigeons. If they can't fly, they are useless to the owner.The owner asked to have him euthanized, but MickaCoo had other plans for Eli. I thank Elizabeth (MickaCoo) for her tireless work in educating the public about pigeons and what wonderful pets they can make. Not only are they clever, and loving, they are beautiful to look at. Keep up the great work, MickaCoo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!